This monthly informational newsletter is designed to assist managers and supervisors with employee related issues, and deals with issues as diverse as death in a family, divorce, substance abuse, gambling, and/or leadership difficulties.
Suggesting the EAP as a source of help would be appropriate because of the personal problem that exists and availability of the program. It is likely that other behavioral-medical issues exist in this instance, because residential treatment is usually not provided for use of bath salts (illegal in many states, but available online). However, there will be recommendations by any treatment program for aftercare, follow-up, possibly 12-step meetings, and most likely self-groups for the parents. Unfortunately, treatment centers out of state are notorious for minimal follow-up after discharge, and do not typically identify solid resources and help necessary to keep the entire family plugged in to recovery. If the employee requests EAP assistance, these concerns and needs can be easily addressed.
EAP's Confidentiality Policy
A. Any employee, whether or not they are a supervisor, or whether or not the nature of the discussion is about a personal problem, is covered by the program’s confidentiality policy. Using the program to get help is what defines you as a client, not the type problem you bring. Ensuring that your discussions with the EAP are confidential reduces risk to the organization because it helps ensure that you are likely to visit the program without hesitation, seek its help in dealing with troubled employees, and thereby reduce risk that employees will be mismanaged. Mismanagement of employees can lead to wrongful discipline, workplace violence, conflicts, absenteeism, legal claims, and much more. When managing troubled employees or simply seeking to elevate their potential, consider what role the EAP can play. EAPs acquire experience on motivating workers, documentation, confrontation, praising and inspiring employees, making observations, and conflict resolution, and can guide you in “what to say” and “how to say it” no matter what the communication need might be.
Employee Privacy is a Manager's Responsibility
A. Yes. Periodically, all managers learn personal information about their employees through private conversations, employment records, hearsay, and personal notes provided to them. Sometimes employees accidentally disclose personal information under emotional stress. Your possession of this information carries with it significant responsibility, and the appropriate care of it is a matter that shouldn’t be taken lightly. Here are some rules to follow: Consider all personal information about employees as private and never disclose it unless compelled to do so. In all cases, talk to your HR manager or legal advisor and don’t act alone without such advice. Also, it may be tempting to share personal information about an employee in confidence with another manager/colleague and ask him or her to not re-share it. Don’t do this. .
Using Feedback as an Effective Tool for Employees
A. Giving feedback to employees is not about delivering the good with the bad and hoping for the best. Your attitude and approach are critical. Do you show annoyance over the shortcomings of your employee’s work, or do you deliver feedback with judgment-free specificity? Do the latter because valuable employees are hard enough on themselves. More importantly, give feedback with the intention of motivating employees. If an employee is not energized following a feedback interview, you have taken a step backward in that relationship. Whenever possible, use feedback meetings to teach new skills. Develop good working relationships with your employees and discuss how you will give feedback to them. Let them know that the purpose of feedback is to help them excel, not to find fault or shake their confidence. Use these guidelines the next time you give feedback. You will enjoy giving feedback more often and you’ll do it more effectively.
Disability Awareness in the Workplace
A. The strongest recommendation regarding supporting employees with disabilities, including chronic pain, is for managers to remain approachable and welcoming so employees with special needs feel willing to request accommodations. This means periodically touching base with these workers and asking how things are going. It also includes modeling inclusiveness to coworkers. Failure to do so may contribute to unnecessary employee turnover. Offering disability awareness to the work organization or work unit is also a plus. The EAP can discuss with you what options for this sort of education might be available. Research shows that stress, anxiety, and workplace conflict can exacerbate chronic pain. This is an added reason to maintain good communication in the workplace, recommend EAP assistance for those who need it, and help employees maintain job satisfaction.
Dealing with Age Discrimination
A. This term “pops” is being viewed by at least a couple of employees as discriminatory. Is it? It really does not matter. Insist that employees stop using this term because people find it offensive. That’s the justification. Perhaps this tag may have been fitting for a chuck wagon cook in an old Western movie, but it’s problematic in the modern era. It does not matter that your employee is not offended. The term denotes an age stereotype. Even if your employee is fond of the term, others may label it as offensive. There are many terms commonly used in the workplace that few employees would give a second thought to. They may feel benign. Unfortunately, many of these terms have shown up in discrimination court cases. Terms like “having a senior moment,” “looking for new blood,” “our new and seasoned supervisors,” and “old school” may also be problematic with regard to ageism in the workplace.
When to Refer a Personal Problem to EAP
A. If your employee asks for a recommendation for a dentist, there certainly isn’t harm in sharing the name of the one you use. However, if the discussion includes reasons as to why this delay has occurred, a recommendation to talk to the EAP about those issues is appropriate. Every day, employees share personal problems with coworkers and supervisors at work. There is nothing unusual about it. However, some issues that at first appear benign are associated with severe problems that are suitable for bringing to the EAP. It is important for you as a supervisor to have a sense of curiosity about your employees and their well-being. The rationale is that your employees represent your most valuable resource. This curiosity does not mean involving yourself in employees’ personal matters or diagnosing problems. But it does mean going a step further when an employee approaches you with something personal, and considering whether an EAP issue exists in the situation he or she presents. Curiosity means asking why. In your case, a delay in seeing a dentist could be associated with fear or financial hardship, among other reasons.
Communication Expectations Within the EAP
A. You should phone the EAP and inquire about communication expectations. The important goal of having the attendance problem corrected means your use of the EAP was a success. However, you are wondering if the communication process is complete. That’s evidence you and the EAP are not in sync. Don’t wait. Instead, reach out and inquire about what to expect when communicating with the EAP and how much longer you should anticipate the feedback continuing. If a release is no longer valid, which could be the reason communication has stopped, then the EAP will let you know. Sometimes employees fail to follow through with EAP recommendations, and they may decide to cancel a release at the same time. This could happen regardless of whether problems like absenteeism are continuing. .
Is EAP an Employee Benefit or an Employer Benefit?
A. The installation of EAPs has a business rationale, but so do the other services you mention because they benefit the workforce by helping workers be happier, healthier, and more productive. The workforce is any organization’s most valuable resource, so in many respects there is no distinction between an employee benefit and an employer benefit made possible by a programmatic approach to helping troubled employees with personal problems that may (or may not) affect their job performance. Without supervisor education (e.g., this newsletter) and training on using them, EAPs are at risk of becoming programs that serve only as confidential counseling services of limited scope, primarily focused on the employee and not on the organization as a whole.
Roadblocks to Supervisors Using the EAP
A. The most difficult roadblock supervisors face in using the EAP to manage troubled employees is making the switch from doing it all themselves, to using a systematic approach to assess, refer, treat, and follow up on a troubled employee. The old approach may include ignoring problems until they precipitate a crisis. Although an employee may sign a release that provides for limited feedback about EAP participation, a supervisor is, by design, removed entirely from involvement in the employee’s problems. This shift can be difficult because the supervisor must give up the ability to control the helping process and its outcome. Turning these roles over to the EAP frees the supervisor from the burden of being an amateur diagnostician, motivational counselor, and caseworker. But this freedom is not always as welcome as it sounds. Some supervisors may feel competent in handling these roles; they may believe in their history of doing so and experience satisfaction and meaning by involving themselves in their employees’ lives. Unfortunately, this approach carries significant risk for all parties concerned.
Points for Meeting with Employees About Performance Issues
A. Talk with the EAP or recall the process of recommended steps for your organization, but the following should be helpful: 1) focus on job performance; 2) be specific; 3) ask the employee if he/she understands the situation clearly; 4) ask the employee to paraphrase what the supervisor has said; 5) ask the employee for a commitment to change; 6) set a specific time for follow-up and review; 7) explain that the employee must decide whether he/she should seek help for any personal issue that may be contributing to the performance issue; 8) explain clearly the EAP and how it works, and discuss confidentiality; 9) fully assure the worker that use of the EAP does not affect job security or promotional opportunities, and is not punitive in any way.
Overcoming "Silo Mentality"
A. The phrase “silo mentality” is more applicable to the dysfunctional practice of departments within organizations isolating themselves by being concerned only with their unique purpose. Withholding information, competitiveness, communication breakdowns, and, when severe enough, nearly isolated work environments with charismatic leaders can result. Supervisors can unwittingly practice a similar behavior by isolating themselves, withholding information, failing to engage with workers, and focusing more on charts and metrics than developing their people. Avoiding this practice requires skills of engagement, collaboration, sharing information, coaching, and modeling. New supervisors are especially at risk for isolation behavior if they give in to their insecurities. Some may deny their role and hope the work unit can function without their direction by deferring to one or two strong subordinates. It may feel safer, but it is a recipe for disaster. The employee assistance program is an ideal source of help. Beyond coaching, which is more appropriately obtained from a next level manager, the EAP can confidentially assess personal issues and help the supervisor identify and overcome roadblocks to full engagement.
Using Humor in the Workplace
A. There is a difference between employees expressing humor within a psychologically safe workplace and the supervisor over-employing humor as a way to interacting and managing employees. This can heighten employee vulnerability, while at the same time making supervisors less approachable. Ironically, some humor may contribute to an intimidating and offensive work environment. Overused, humor can also send a message that there is nothing very serious about what we do here—that mistakes and problems are not to be taken seriously. This results in the loss of a healthy sense of urgency and leads to diminished performance by employees. This dynamic can prompt employees to focus on personal matters rather than workplace productivity; indeed, research has shown this to be the case. However, humor is a natural human behavior. It is not something that has to be deliberately learned or practiced. Naturally occurring, it can be an indicator of a positive work climate where employees are able to be happy, healthy, and productive. Learn more at https://wustl.edu (search “humor in the workplace”).
Learning to Become a Leader
A. It is a myth that leadership can’t be learned. Here are a few rewarding challenges to master—all teachable: thinking and acting in ways that encourage others so they trust and follow you; creating a vision or a direction in which you want to lead a team; having a personal vision for yourself within this context; considering crises that can happen and how to respond to them; being optimistic (optimistic authority figures inspire others); resolving conflicts; taking charge before being told what to do; pulling others into the action; striving for excellence, not perfection; maintaining high standards and giving others credit where it is due; praising employees frequently to inspire them to produce; taking risks out of your comfort zone; being truthful with yourself; knowing your strengths and weaknesses, and depending on others with skills you lack to achieve work-unit goals; building your brand as a leading expert in one or two areas; being a credible resource others trust; being a role-model for compassion, commitment, effort, integrity, teamwork, good communication, and vision; and getting to work on time! Feeling insecure about any of these? Talk to the EAP and troubleshoot hurdles throughout your career.
Can EAP Overcome Lies and Manipulation?
A. Sometimes employees do visit EAPs and lie. They attempt to manipulate the EAP and control the direction of the interview, and behave as though they are insightful and fully cooperative, but they are not. This is always short-lived because, ultimately, there is a bottom line—job security. This leverage is a vital element in EAP theory and practice. It is precious to motivation, cooperation, and the pursuit of wellness with troubled employees. Some of these employees may have extraordinary skills and training. Employment leverage saves lives. The employer is in control if performance improvement is not forthcoming. Most employees understand this reality before coming to the EAP. Very few will not grasp this reality and not feel a true sense of urgency until they are teetering on termination. This dynamic is why EAPs work. The EAP is always a problem-solving success story for the organization. The employee, however, has to decide whether it will be a success story for him or her. The greater the clarity given to a formally referred employee about expectations and consequences, the more cooperative they tend to be.
When an Employees Uses Self-referral
A. You could still make a formal supervisor referral, but you can also wait to see if the attendance issues clear up. Consider letting the EAP know about attendance issues, however. The release signed by your employee is obviously limited, so do not expect follow-up reports, etc. Note that the release may be rescinded at any time, leaving the EAP without the ability to communicate with you. It will not be able to acknowledge follow-through with recommendations or share status of participation. Still, none of this will interfere with your ability to manage performance. If attendance issues continue, decide whether to initiate a formal supervisor referral, in which you can request more structured communication (but not clinical information) or take corrective action, as you and your advisers deem appropriate.
Can Rude Behavior in the Work Place Impact Productivity?
A. Rude behavior is incivility at work, a topic that has received increased attention because surveys show it has grown worse. Approximately twice as many employees complain about rudeness today than they did 20 years ago. One poll showed that nearly half of employees intentionally decreased their work effort in response to rudeness, intentionally decreased time spent at work, intentionally decreased quality of work, lost time worrying about and stewing over incidents, avoided the rude person, and admitted declines in commitment to the organization. Twenty-five percent said they took out their frustrations on customers! Obviously, rudeness takes a toll on the bottom line. A positive workplace that reduces rudeness is not an accident. A strategic approach that includes education, awareness, and proactive and supportive policies, like those that address other organizational risks, is worth considering. And, of course, EAP referral when needed is appropriate. Start with a sit-down assessment with your EAP to design a customized approach that fits with your work culture. Learn more: https://hbr.org/2013/01/the-price-of-incivility.
Is the EAP for Productivity or a Counseling Agency?
A. Your view of EAP is consistent with the business rationale for such programs and with that usually mentioned in policies that establish them. Such a viewpoint may increase the number of employees seen for personal problems, especially among troubled workers, some of whom pose greater risk to the organization. Direct appeal to reduce the stigma of seeking help for personal problems, however, is also part of the solution to maximize utilization and impact. So a balance of viewpoints is ideal. If employees only view the EAP as a “counseling office” for “personal problems,” the stigma of seeking help can reduce motivation to participate. However, if the added focus on productivity improvement and work quality is well-promoted, these factors will work synergistically for the benefit of all.
Are You "Phubbing" During Meetings?
A. Behavior you are describing is referred to as “boss phone snubbing” in one research study, and it is also known as “phubbing” (phone + snubbing). Anyone can be guilty of this off-putting behavior and earn the ire of meeting participants, but when bosses do it, their status and authority, and the power of being a role model others want to admire, can have an especially negative impact on subordinates. Research on this topic discovered that supervisors who cannot resist looking repeatedly at their smartphones while meeting with employees risk losing their employees’ trust. The productivity cost is loss of engagement. Smartphone addiction is not a recognized disorder, at least not yet, but the problem can create distress. Consider whether your use of a smartphone causes problems but, despite your best efforts, you can’t stop. If that is true, contact the EAP. Check out this less-than-scientific, but humorous quiz on smartphone addiction: http://www.quizony.com (search “smartphone”). It is at least a good awareness builder. Also, see the study: www.baylor.edu (search “boss phone snub”).
Can EAP Help Me With the Decision-Making Process?
A. There are many reasons people hesitate to make decisions. Fear of being wrong is one, but what drives this fear? This question is one the EAP can help you understand more clearly. You must make decisions, of course, so your anxiety translates into stalling techniques with the information-seeking, which is a legitimate and responsible step that covers for your hesitancy. You are using it as a crutch. The rest of the problem about making decisions—the mechanics of the process—can be found in hundreds of resources. In your journey of discovery, examine whether any of these decision-killers affect you: 1) perfectionism (it slows progress), 2) fear of disapproval, and 3) over-analyzing. Great decision makers have a history of overcoming mistakes. It is these mistakes that turn them into leaders who can trust their gut—an art that gets better over time. This is your goal: to be a great gut-level decision maker who is often right, but not perfect.
Workplace Shootings -- Who is at Greastest Risk?
A. About 450 homicides occur in the workplace each year in the U.S., and about 85% of these are shootings. An equal number of victims are also shot, but survive. The latest government statistics (2015) show that first-line supervisors of retail employees are at the highest risk of getting shot. Next are cashiers, followed by law enforcement officers, and then taxi drivers. Robbery is the most common reason for shootings. Men are five times more likely than women to be a victim of a shooting, but women are 10 times more likely to get shot when the assailant is a domestic partner, lover, or acquaintance. Domestic violence victimization is one circumstance sometimes shared or known by others at work. It is therefore crucial to refer these victims of abuse and violence to the EAP, and not become a private confidant. Only a proper assessment will offer the best chance of identifying the level of risk that might exist, and what to do next about it. https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/workplace-homicides.htm
Self-referred Employees Often Complain About Supervisors. Its okay!
A. EAPs work with the information provided by employees to guide them toward a workable solution. Complaints about supervisors are common, but EAPs do not need “the other side of the story” from the supervisor to help employees navigate their way to a better relationship. If such information is needed, the employee can supply it or the EAP can request it. You may feel uncomfortable imagining your employees at the EAP office talking about you, but you should understand that EAPs are hosted by organizations. This means EAPs seek healthful and productive resolutions that benefit employees in their roles as workers without dismissing the primacy of the organization or undermining your role or position.
Anxiety is Impairing Employee's Job Performance
A. Your employee’s nervousness affects communication, interferes with the relationship between you, increases his risk of making mistakes and getting injured on the job, and may ultimately cause him to quit. His issues are interfering with his job satisfaction, which is also important. These documentable issues justify a formal referral. Your employee may respond to an encouraged self-referral, but why wait? There is nothing improper about making a formal referral now that will allow you to communicate with the EAP and help him. The employee’s problem is likely some condition related to anxiety, but many things could conceivably cause the behavior you are seeing.
Self-Referrals for Alcoholism
A. Self-referrals do occur, but they typically result from drinking-related incidents, not simply the awareness of alcoholism. Like other illnesses with behavioral aspects to them, enabling and denial act as forces making self-diagnosis difficult. A DUI, the fear of divorce, or a “close call,” among other situations, may motivate self-referrals. Alcoholics are seeking help for their “drinking problem,” even in these circumstances—they hope to regain control over their drinking. They often have ruled out the possibility of alcoholism based on their own unique definition, which excludes them. This is where expertise is crucial in the assessment process. The EA professional may have only one shot at helping these employees understand the nature of what they are dealing with and motivating them to take the next step. The client must be sold on the benefits—the promises of recovery—that result from proper treatment. Some clients are ready for this message, while others are not. The window of motivation is short. The good news is that the predictability of future crises almost guarantees them another chance to hear the message and accept help.
Should Supervisors Share Personal Information?
A. Demonstrating vulnerability will tend to improve relationships in your personal life, but it can undermine your supervisory role in correcting worker performance. The reasons are not mysterious. The employment setting operates with a different set of dynamics than your personal life. Because a paycheck passes downward in an organization to employees and a hierarchy exists to ensure productivity and workflow, there are natural differences in status that exist between workers and those who supervise them. With their higher status, supervisors possess influence and leverage that allow them the power to correct problems, guide employees, judge performance, and discipline and reward workers. But these forces can be undermined. One way to do that is to convince employees that you and they are equal in status. Self-disclosure (being too close and personal) produces this result. If you are perceived as a friend rather than a boss, your employees lose the sense of urgency needed to work under your direction. Coaxing and pleading become faulty tools of persuasion. The same dynamic occurs when parents forgo discipline to become friends with their children.
Tips for Supervisors Receiving Sexual Harassment Complaints
A. Although education is an important prevention measure, another piece of the “prevention/intervention pie” is reinforcement of a complaint procedure so employees understand it and are encouraged to use it. You want to know when employees are being discriminated against, being harassed, or facing other problems like bullying on the job. Periodically remind employees about the complaint procedure, and if you are a supervisor, be careful not to minimize or ignore complaints brought to you by employees. It is easy to ignore indirect complaints, “slight mentions,” and passing comments about problems from victims or third parties. No matter how it is couched, minimized, or diplomatically described to you, treat a complaint as a complaint. Anything less may cause you to overlook victimization. Do not treat harassment complaints as “personality conflicts” in need of some sort of coaching or mediation. Steps like these taken by supervisors that minimize or “define problems down” place organizations at risk of later legal claims that you knew or should have known about the harassing behavior, but did nothing about it.
Dealing with Negativity in an Employee
A. Negativity is an attitude issue within the definition of job performance. Other factors include quality of work, quantity of work, attendance, appearance, behavior, and availability. Meet with your employee and discuss the negativity. Share examples so there is no dispute over what you observe. Negative attitudes can stem from many causes. Some are benign, but off-putting, like a cynical sense of humor. Others are more serious, like major complaints about the organization or supervisor or dislike of one’s job. Your conversation will probably yield a good explanation for the negativity, because most employees are aware of their personality issues gained from past confrontations or relationship struggles with others. Ask your employee how your relationship with him or her can facilitate a more positive disposition. Do not tell others to cope better with negativity. Negativity has a contagious influence, so refer to the EAP rather than risk morale problems.
How to Inspire an Employee to Reach for That Next Level
A. Some employees do motivate themselves because they know the value of being energized. They’ve learned that love of the job comes by engaging the organization, understanding their role and its importance, and seeing all the possibilities before them. Other employees must be inspired and shown what lies over the mountaintop. Your ability to inspire this latter group is a critical skill that can reduce turnover and attitude problems and boost productivity. To inspire employees, spend time with them and demonstrate your own enthusiasm so they can see it. They will be compelled to model it. Help them get clear about their role and your performance expectations. (A common complaint heard by EAPs from employees is a lack of understanding of what the supervisor wants from them.) Help employees understand the company’s strategic plan and direction, their role in it, and the value of their work product or services. Always let employees have some say in what they would like to accomplish, and set goals, evaluate, and give feedback toward that end during the year.
Resignation vs. Resolution
A. Employee assistance programs are in the business of helping employees resolve personal problems that may affect job performance, so it would never be advisable to encourage an employee to quit as a solution to his or her personal issues if the EAP has not been afforded the opportunity to help the employee. It would be improper for the EAP to endorse or discourage disciplinary or administrative actions, but certainly the EAP referral should be attempted early in the process of this situation you describe. If you have not done so, refer now. The EAP can then help the employee make the best decision based upon all the issues discovered in the assessment interview.
Resolving Attendance Issues with EAP
A. Although this meeting was two weeks ago, let the EAP know about it. Inform your employee you have done so. Encourage use of the program once more. There are a few reasons for doing this. (1) The EA professional may offer guidance to you on managing your employee’s attendance issues. (2) Your employee’s knowledge of your contact with the EAP may facilitate changing his or her mind, and information you supplied will allow a more complete assessment. (3) Your employee may have attendance issues in the near future and realize help is needed, thereby self-referring in a crisis. (4) The EAP would encourage and educate the employee about the value of signing a release.
I Am Afraid to Fire my Employee
A. Your employee has persistent and severe conduct problems. Therefore, a management referral to the EAP is appropriate. You could wait and see whether the EAP can help the employee change his behavior, but you should discuss the postponement of dismissal with your management advisers. The EAP can’t participate in administrative decisions. Always consult with management resources and advisers when you fear for your safety. If you refer him to the EAP, you may wish to view it as an accommodation to help the employee deal with his problems. The EAP will assess anger issues, use of alcohol, and other risk issues. A release will keep you apprised of participation and cooperation with program recommendations. Note that you always should refer employees to an EAP at the earliest sign of persistent conduct issues. This affords a better opportunity to intervene with chronic employee behavioral problems, which often grow worse.
Can EAP Assist With Employees' Bad Attitude?
A. Yes, the EAP can help. You do have job performance issues that you can document and upon which you can base a referral. It’s attitude at work. Attitude can be described in a way that makes it measurable. The EAP can consult with you on useful language to consider in documentation, and it will do so with you confidentially. Useful language is critical because your organization may need such memos in the future to support performance management decisions. The task is to describe the manner in which your employee conducts himself, the disposition and temperament he displays, and most important, the impact on others. This is key to effective documentation—describing the harm or cost to the organization in lost productivity, lower morale, conflict, lost team cohesion, etc.
How Can I Determine if My Employee Has an Anxiety Disorder?
A. Looking for mental health symptoms is not an efficient way of identifying troubled employees from a management perspective. Focusing on performance standards you want improved and then considering a referral to the EAP when they do not get better is the way to go. Are you puzzled by an employee who turned down a promotion for the third time? What about an employee who always avoids the annual holiday party? These employees may be exhibiting symptoms of two quite different forms of anxiety—or they may not be symptoms of anxiety at all. There is a wide spectrum of anxiety disorders. Everyone experiences some anxiety from time to time, but many with severe forms of anxiety may perform in a superior fashion.
My Company Wants to Put Veterans in the Workplace
A. Be proactive and communicate effectively with veterans. Surveys of vets who are employed in the civilian workforce find that most think their unique skills—ones that would directly help the employer—aren’t fully or effectively used. So, when supervising vets, dialogue with them about their ideas, skills, and potential. Put them to the test. Vets are trained in taking or giving directions and then performing to their maximum ability. They are not necessarily conditioned to play the devil’s advocate, question authority, hold brainstorming sessions, or delve into discussions about how employees feel. These participatory workplace behaviors of the modern era may require more prompting to pull vets into them. If you are hiring vets, consider the special report released last year that will aid you in maximizing your effectiveness in working with vets. It’s called “Mission Critical: Unlocking the Value of Veterans in the Workforce.” Find it at online bookstores. Don’t forget to make the EAP available and have its message communicated to family members and spouses. These persons can help reach vets if personal problems arise.
Best Practices for Managing Employees With an EAP Referral.
A. Communicating with the supervisor following a formal referral for performance problems represents best practice for EAPs in managing troubled workers. It recognizes that employees are motivated, in part, to follow through because of concern over their job security. Eliminating this dynamic reduces accountability and invites a loss of urgency on the part of the EAP client. An EAP does not equate to a counseling service. It is a programmatic approach to managing troubled workers whose performance issues may be caused by personal problems. The two approaches are radically different helping systems. The former is entirely apart from the workplace or any other system. An EAP, on the other hand, exists because of its primary business purpose, which is helping the workforce remain happy, healthy, and productive. Part of this must be motivating the most difficult and most troubled workers to follow through with its recommendations.