This monthly informational newsletter is designed to assist managers and supervisors with employee related issues, and deals with issues as diverse as death in a family, divorce, substance abuse, gambling, and/or leadership difficulties.
Suggesting the EAP as a source of help would be appropriate because of the personal problem that exists and availability of the program. It is likely that other behavioral-medical issues exist in this instance, because residential treatment is usually not provided for use of bath salts (illegal in many states, but available online). However, there will be recommendations by any treatment program for aftercare, follow-up, possibly 12-step meetings, and most likely self-groups for the parents. Unfortunately, treatment centers out of state are notorious for minimal follow-up after discharge, and do not typically identify solid resources and help necessary to keep the entire family plugged in to recovery. If the employee requests EAP assistance, these concerns and needs can be easily addressed.
Employee Not Following Through With EAP Recommendations
Q. The EAP notified me that an employee I referred is not following through with its recommendations. The employee signed a release, but there are no disciplinary issues. Is there any reason to meet with the employee, even though I can’t discuss the personal problem?
A. Yes. Sit down with your employee. Explain that you are in this meeting not to discuss any personal business related to the EAP referral, but to address the performance or conduct matter that led to the referral in the first place. Your expectation is the resolution of that problem or concern regardless of follow-through at the EAP. Let your employee know what the consequences are for a continuation of the problem, and encourage him or her to reconsider participation in the EAP along with its recommendations. Follow up and meet with your employee in the weeks ahead to reinforce any successful work performance or address any return to the performance issue. Whether you refer to the EAP again (if problems return) would be up to you, but talk with the EAP if that happens.
EAP's Role in the Workplace
Q. We hired an employee who was recently paroled from prison after being incarcerated for a few years. Can I refer the employee to the EAP to be interviewed and assessed for any risk issues?
A. The EAP would not meet with an employee for this purpose because it is beyond the scope of EAP practice. The employee could self-refer to the EAP for any reason, of course, and you could refer the employee (like any other employee) for performance issues, but meeting with the EAP to help management better gauge the employment decision would be impermissible. Such a practice would damage the program’s ability to attract self-referrals, because it would be seen by the workforce as intimidating. Your new employee has a parole officer, and the court has a discharge plan. The court takes responsibility for a parolee’s assessment, release, and suitability for work. This often includes communication with the employer. EAPs promote their confidentiality and their reputation as a safe and helpful resource, and when this perception is eroded, risk to the organization will increase because some employees may shy away.
Is an EAP Recommendation Appropriate for a Medical Issue?
Q. My employee is in pain when he bends over or gets out of a chair. We avoid giving additional assignments to him. This is a medical issue, so is an EAP referral appropriate? My assistant has a great arthritis doctor, and we were thinking about giving this employee the physician’s phone number.
A. There are several reasons to consider recommending that your employee visit with the EAP. These include the EAP providing help with ancillary problems associated with the condition and the workplace, relationship stress in the office, secondary problems the condition has created at home, a need for general support, pursuing ideas the employee may have to help cope with the condition at work (special accommodations, etc.), and other problems still unknown. A good medical practitioner may be needed, of course. Provide this information to the EAP, which will pass it along. The EAP will follow up, offer encouragement, connect with referral sources, and provide ongoing services to help ensure effective treatment or resolution of other problems. This is a good example of how EAPs can help employees with problems that at first glance may not appear to benefit from EAP help.
What is the Next Step After EAP Recommendation?
Q. The spouse of an employee phoned me on Sunday night to say his wife would not be at work the next day because of a car problem. It all seemed rather odd. I recommended this employee visit the EAP in the past for being absent on Mondays. What’s my next step to intervene?
A. Many employees will visit the EAP based on a supervisor’s recommendation. This usually happens for two reasons: They really have a personal problem and the prompt by the supervisor does the trick to motivate them to get help, or they don’t have much of a problem at all, but they go to the EAP because pleasing the supervisor is important to them. Employees with personal problems they would really rather control but not give up, like alcoholism, seek help because of a different set of dynamics. This last possibility may describe your employee and why your earlier recommendation was ignored. Employees with personal problems that affect job performance but offer significant “desirable benefits,” like addiction, must be motivated to accept help by the goal of avoiding something they fear. Typically, this is an effective disciplinary action. The question for the supervisor is how long to tolerate repeated performance problems before deciding upon an action that can leverage an employee’s desire to seek help.
Help, I am Exhausted, Apathetic, and Frustrated
Q. I am feeling burned out. I am exhausted, apathetic, and frustrated. Should I go to my boss first or visit the EAP for answers on how to get out of this state of mind?
A. Whether you approach your boss or the EAP is your decision, but here is how the EAP can help: 1) Assess the degree to which burnout is affecting your physical health (a medical referral may follow). 2) Identify the ways in which burnout has affected your work-life balance, with the goal of planning a return-to-wellness strategy, particularly with regard to depression. 3) Offer suggestions for intervention strategies outside of work that can help you return to a more fully functioning state of engagement with your organization. 4) Help you examine on-the-job interventions, some of which may require discussion with your boss in order to implement them. 5) Follow up with you to facilitate, monitor, and help you implement your return-to-wellness plan.
Is Respect Deserved or Earned?
Q. I had an employee retort, “You have to earn my respect!” I’ve heard this before, but I say it’s manipulation. Supervisors deserve respect because of who we are and what we do. Can you discuss this often-heard phrase? I think younger supervisors are intimidated by it.
A. “Respect is earned” may sound valid or like common sense, but it is more fitting for an advertising slogan than for employee expectations in the workplace. Respectful behavior and respect (as in high opinion or admiration) are different things. Certainly the position you hold as supervisor entitles you to demonstrated respect from employees beginning on day one, because you represent the employer. You manage and oversee the employment relationship. And you have all its responsibilities. Your supervision style is something your employees may come to admire and respect, however, and this is what is usually meant by the phrase respect is earned. You may hear this one-liner from difficult or troubled employees, but it is typically an attempt to manipulate or control the relationship for a specific purpose.
My Employee Works TOO MUCH!
Q. I am concerned about an employee who works too much. I would like to make a referral to the EAP, but until now I have given only outstanding performance evaluations. The employee also spends time helping other employees. This is a very unusual level of overwork. What could explain it?
A. Create a corrective plan with a reasonable workload with which to comply. Encourage a self-referral to the EAP based on your concern about the level of overwork. Later, if needed, make a more formal referral for failure to maintain the level of performance standards you specified in the plan (or mini-contract.) Employees with strong work ethics are to be admired, but it appears you are observing something far different. All employees bring their personalities to work, and sometimes these include mental health issues. These issues do not necessarily interfere with occupational functioning or become measurable concerns for management. However, when they do, disturbances in personal and work boundaries will typically become noticeable. EAPs are in an ideal spot to help employers address issues of this sort so valuable workers with treatable conditions can remain gainfully employed. Obsessive-compulsive behaviors, codependency issues, drug use, or a mental health problem with a manic component to it could each explain the behavior you are witnessing.
Bullying in the Workplace
Q. My employee complained to human resources about my bullying. I am not a bully, but I use humor with my employees, and I guess my dry humor didn’t sit well with this worker. I was not considered a bully by HR, but I am trying to change my style. Hasn’t bullying in the workplace as a problem been overblown?
A. Bullying in the workplace is pervasive and is now viewed as a serious occupational hazard by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety. The 2017 survey on workplace bullying was released recently by the Workplace Bullying Institute. Their key findings: 19% of Americans are bullied at work, and another 19% witness it; 61% of Americans are aware of abusive conduct in the workplace; 70% of perpetrators are men; 60% of targets are women; 61% of bullies are bosses; 40% of bullied targets are believed to suffer adverse health effects. The above reflects the serious human and economic costs of bullying. Although you were not found to be a bully, making employees the target of jokes can be intimidating and lead to a host of other employment-related complaints like harassment. Since you are desirous of having meaningful relationships with your employees, the EAP can help. Start with altering your communication style so you nurture more satisfying workplace relationships.
Dealing with Customer Service Stress
Q. How can the EAP help my employees with customer service stress?
A. Consider surveying employees to see where their “pain points” are regarding customer service stress. This is a broad topic and could include burnout, physical demands, dealing with angry customers, training needs, resources issues, and pressure to meet management expectations versus customer satisfaction, or feeling unsure about one’s role, performance review issues, and more. A quick search for “types of customer service stress” can lead you to a good list. Use these to query your group, and with this needs analysis in hand, you can meet with the EAP and better discuss how the EAP can meet the needs of your group or individual employees. Retaining good customer service workers by helping them deal with stress is a smart move—and a cost-beneficial one that could help you retain your stars.
Is Alcohol on the Breath a Problem?
Q. I have an employee who comes to work with a slight smell of alcohol on the breath. He appears perfectly sober and capable of work. I haven’t had a problem at all with him. I have not referred for testing because I am not suspicious he is under the influence. Should I be?
A. Don’t ignore this any longer. You should review your organization’s drug and alcohol policy for guidance on how to proceed. Also consult with the EAP and your manager. Workplaces are different and so are drug and alcohol policies. While a hospital may prohibit alcohol consumption by employees during the workday, other business organizations that entertain customers may have no such provision – even while employees are away from a facility on a lunch break. Alcohol on the breath in the morning may signal maintenance drinking; the employee consumes alcohol to prevent symptoms of withdrawal, which would be visible if the blood alcohol level were to drop. High tolerance in such instances would allow the employee to appear sober, even though he has a relatively high blood alcohol content, which makes him a safety risk.
A Manager's Role in Dealing with Fatigue
Q. I read that fatigue is an important health matter employees should monitor, and that it results from too much work and difficulty separating work and home life. Do supervisors have any role in identifying employees who are experiencing fatigue, and in getting them help?
A. You should not diagnose employee problems or refer employees for conditions you think you have identified. Fatigue can be caused by many other medical conditions, including medications; health problems like diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome, and sleep disorders; and even depression. Suggest instead that employees seek self-referral to the EAP based on how they appear or what they have shared with you about their problems. This may include obvious signs and symptoms of being tired. When employees look tired, ask them how they feel, recommend they get some rest, and make it easy for them to get it. At work, you may notice the effects of fatigue on someone’s behavior even before you identify clinical symptoms of the fatigue’s effect on the body. These effects include problems with an employee’s mood or difficulties in the way the employee interacts with others, and perhaps seeing an employee appear to be asleep during work hours.
Are You a Leader or a Supervisor?
Q. The best supervisors in my career did not just supervise; instead, they raised employees up, attracted their loyalty, and inspired their desire to be part of a cohesive and close work unit. I think this is a learned skill, not just charisma. Am I correct?
A. You are describing the qualities of a good leader. The following are a few contrasts between being a supervisor and being a leader. Instead of simply administrating, look for ways to innovate and improve systems within your work unit. Place your focus on people and developing them, rather than only paying attention to the letter of their job descriptions. Take safe risks with your employees’ abilities and talents, rather than pigeon-holing them into who should do what. This inspires trust between you and them. Think about the future of your work unit, not just what is happening from day to day. When employees complain, pay attention to their needs. Do not see making changes as giving in to demands, but rather as challenging the status quo. You have unique talents. Know what they are, and how you will elevate your work unit and organization with them. Focus on doing the right thing for your employees, rather than thinking “we can’t do it that way because it has never been done.” Stepping outside of the structure will cause you to make some mistakes, but leadership means you will lack one attribute: being perfect.
Good Supervisors Cannot be Counselors
Q. I have always been a little resistant to referring my star performers to the EAP. Instead, I have discussed personal problems with them. This is not the right approach, but I fear the word might get out and damage their careers. Can you help me with this issue?
A. There is an important dynamic worth understanding when it comes to helping employees with their personal problems who you also supervise. This is the “dual relationship” conflict where the employment relationship interferes with your ability to play the role of a counselor or problem solver. You cannot successfully alter this dynamic. Playing both roles of boss and counselor interferes with employees’ ability to share complete information that is potentially critical to resolving their problem. You may hear only 95 percent of what’s going on, and therefore offer the wrong advice, discuss the wrong problem, or at best facilitate half-measures that make the problem worse. A better approach is to encourage your employees to phone the EAP and make their own decision. Confidentiality rules associated with EAPs are the strictest of their kind. Consider talking with the EAP about confidentiality. You’ll discover how truly safe EAPs are for employees to use.
Supporting Employees With Depression
Q. How can supervisors support employees who suffer from depression? I know at least two within my group of workers who are on medication. I don’t pry or get personally involved, but I don’t want to be completely unaware of what might be helpful to them.
A. Recognize that depression is a disease like other chronic illnesses, and that it is managed, usually with the help of a medical doctor. The patient and doctor work together to reduce symptoms in order to prevent interference with social and occupational functioning. Symptoms may lead employees to be less assertive about their needs or when discussing their thoughts, feelings, or ideas around a project or work problem. Do not misinterpret this as laziness or unprofessionalism. If your workplace is under stress, and serious changes are at hand, this can also make depression worse. Encourage all employees to be open with you about their needs and how you can support them. Remind them as appropriate to reach out to the EAP, but also hold employees to the standards reasonably expected for their positions. This can help troubled employees in general seek help sooner from the EAP, no matter what their problem might be.
Leniency is Not the Answer to Habitual Tardiness
Q. Some of my employees are college students who party on the weekends, and they come in late to work sometimes. Frankly, I am lenient because I was young once and these guys stay late when necessary to get their work done. Am I managing this issue incorrectly?
A. There are inherent risks with your approach. If your employees know you are lenient with their time, they are likely to continue with this pattern and allow it to grow worse. Another drawback is your inability to plan the workday, engage with them more effectively, and enhance your work organization. You will end up accommodating their less-than-satisfactory mental and medical state if they come to work hung over. Although intervening with alcoholism is not your job, a lack of structure will by default enable an alcoholic employee to continue abuse of the system, and you won’t have a means of measuring poor attendance, which is necessary for a referral to the EAP. Don’t enable this pattern of attendance. It will only increase risk to your organization.
Negotiating Employee Conflict
Q. My employee says she is thinking about quitting because she can’t get along with her coworker. Should I send her (or them) to the EAP, or should I first try to resolve his problem myself? I am a little nervous about doing this right the first time. I don’t want to lose her.
A. Managers should first attempt to resolve conflicts between employees. Here’s one approach: Ask this employee to share the history of the conflict with you, how it began, and what prompted her to come to you now. Ask what steps she has taken to resolve the conflict and why she believes they have not worked. Ask your employee about how she would like to proceed with a resolution, but anticipate making a decision to meet with both employees and play a leading role. This is important because for some employees, remaining in conflict is easier than the compromises necessary to resolve them. If you lose control of this process, change becomes optional. In this sense, employee conflicts are not solely personal problems, because they can always potentially affect the bottom line. Managers must shepherd them to a resolution. If a resolution does not appear forthcoming, involve the EAP to save time and to address hidden agendas or other unspoken issues underlying the conflict that may require ensuring confidentiality in order to properly address it.
Can EAP Help Supervisor Build Employee Relationships?
Q. How can the EAP help me as a supervisor in developing and improving my relationships with employees?
A. The success of the supervisory role is largely dependent on the effectiveness of relationships that you have with employees. An effective relationship allows you to play an influential role in maximizing the job satisfaction and productivity of your workers. There is more to achieving these goals than most supervisors realize. EAPs have resources and counseling skills, and they understand relationship dynamics that can help. Developing and enhancing emotional intelligence is the path to success, and EAPs can consult with you on ways to improve relationships and enhance them in specific ways--determining how to motivate employees, utilize their talents better, help them feel rewarded, and listen to and understand their needs. You want employees to be honest with you, open up, share their workplace struggles and their ideas, and tell you how they can best be utilized. All of this depends on your ability to be your authentic self, open up, exercise patience, and demonstrate vulnerability. These are relationship skills that EAPs’ expertise can help you attain and develop.
Top List of Employee Complaints
Q. II am a new supervisor. What are the top complaints of employees about supervisors? I plan to avoid all of them.
A. A national 2015 Harris Poll was conducted that asked employees this question. Read about it in the Harvard Business Review online at hbr.org (search bar “top complaints”). These complaints, starting with the most frequently cited, are not recognizing employee achievements, not giving clear directions, not having time to meet with employees, refusing to talk to subordinates, taking credit for others’ ideas, not offering constructive criticism, not knowing employees’ names, refusing to talk to people on the phone or in person, and not asking about employees’ lives outside work. Keeping this list in mind, conducting a self-assessment, and working to champion all of them will produce more engaged and happier employees, reduce turnover, and play a role in helping your bottom line. The EAP can help you be a stronger performer in any of these areas where you think you fall short.
Symptoms of Internet Addiction
Q. Other than spending a lot of time online, what are the workplace signs of an employee with an Internet addiction?
A. Internet addiction is not yet recognized as a psychiatric disorder, but those who struggle with it often suffer other forms of compulsive behaviors related to Internet use, like online gambling and gaming. You may not witness compulsive use of the Internet with an employee you supervise, but you can often see and measure consequences. These serve as the basis of the supervisor’s referral of the employee to the EAP. You should anticipate an irregular cycle of improvement and a return to unsatisfactory performance as you begin to confront these problems. Compulsive use of the Internet is an insidious addiction that consumes time, which is a finite resource. This means other tasks and responsibilities must be left undone due to procrastination, purposely ignored, rescheduled, accomplished less frequently, or completely eliminated from the compulsive user’s mental to-do list. These things could include assignments, organizing an office, paying bills, filing, emptying the trash, or even personal hygiene. Note that you may never associate these problems with Internet addiction, but you can still manage a problem employee who exhibits them.
Defining Subtle Abuse or Bullying in Documentation
Q. Documenting employees who participate in subtle abuse or bullying behaviors is sometimes difficult because one can’t describe what’s being witnessed, like tone of voice, for example. In the end, it just sounds like one’s opinion!
A. You are correct. Tone of voice is difficult to describe in documentation without being subjective, which may lead to its being dismissed by management as opinion. The way around this problem is to document reactions by the victim or others to the tone of voice. These effects are visible and therefore describable and measurable. Now you have something less refutable, not based on opinion. Several of these documented situations constitute a preponderance of evidence that supports the thrust of your documentation, which makes it useful for administrative purposes.
EAP's Role in Your Company
Q. All employees trust our EAP, so if we have an incident at work, such as a sexual harassment complaint, isn’t the EAP the best choice for doing the investigation so everyone knows it is fair?
A. An employee assistance program would not be assigned responsibility for conducting an investigation of a sexual harassment complaint because this is a formal function and the legal obligation of management. The process itself is what defines its integrity, not the personality attributes of the investigator. Many steps and communication points are involved in such an investigation, and documentation is relied upon later to make administrative, legal, and disciplinary decisions. The perception of the EAP as a source of confidential, reliable, and safe help would be damaged if it were to play this role, and such activity would confuse employees, thereby reducing program utilization. An EAP has a specific purpose within an organization and a defined mission within its “EAP core technology,” the principles that describe it functions. Playing an investigatory role is not compatible with this purpose, and loss of the EAP’s perception as a safe and confidential resource would result.
When Home Life and Work Life Intersect
Q. My employee’s four-year-old child is coming to work with her this week because of “some logistical problems” at home. I was permitted to make this concession. Her brother was released from prison recently and moved in with her. I am worried that a safety issue exists. What should I do?
A. It is prudent and appropriate to understand what might be going on here. Ask your employee if she is concerned about the safety of her child at home. This may alleviate your concern or suggest further steps. This is not probing or being intrusive or “getting involved.” It is a different situation because you have concern about a child’s welfare. Also, talk with the EAP so you are on record as having sought consultative help regarding this matter. Consult with your boss as well so you cover the bases. There may be no serious issues at home, but something is clearly out of the ordinary, so recommend a self-referral to the EAP. EAPs are expert motivational interviewers and have the skills and the assurances of confidentiality needed to learn more about her situation than she may be willing to tell you.
When Your Employee is Your Long-time Friend
Q. I am a long-time friend with my employee who is a participant in the employee assistance program. Can I ask her to sign a release so the EAP can give me more information about the nature of her problems and how they are being treated?
A. You can ask, but the EAP will recommend against it. Establishing a separate information flow to you creates a relationship that is fraught with risk and assorted problems. The EA professional will offer quality guidance on your role in managing performance so your employee has the best chance of returning to the level of performance you require. Your employee is free to share information, of course, but when supervisors try to manage performance and also process personal problems, employees typically diminish their involvement in treatment recommendations due to role conflict. Why? The employee perceives you as a trusted, safe, and understanding friend, and will relate to you on this basis rather than as the employer’s representative, which is your job. Undermining this employer-employee dynamic removes a constructive force and sense of urgency that troubled employees rely upon to become motivated and stay focused on treatment.
Supervisiors Should Particpate in Conflict Resolution with Employees
Q. Should supervisors participate in conflict resolution sessions with employees, or refer these issues to the EAP? It all seems a bit intimidating.
A. Helping employees resolve differences is an important supervisory skill. Many resources for doing it exist. It is a myth that you must be formally trained to sit down with two warring workers and help them resolve differences. Find an approach that matches your work style and job setting. One effective model entails meeting with both employees together and having each explain their side of the conflict. Don’t make judgments, just listen. Next, meet each employee separately and encourage a full venting. Listen empathically. Ask for ideas about resolution. After these three meetings, you will witness a dramatic temporary diminishment of tension. This comes from venting and anticipation of change that each employee experiences. Meet together, discuss ideas—theirs and yours—and write an agreement. Follow up in a week and again in four weeks. Reinforce positive change. Consult with the EAP if needed along the way, but refer your employees to the EAP upon any reemergence of the conflict, and give a strong message of accountability and expectations for the conflict’s resolution.
Depression in the Workplace
Q. Do some employees with depression still function satisfactorily at work, but if treated, could perform even better and more happily? I have employees who appear depressed, but I can’t refer them to the EAP. Still, I bet they would benefit if they went.
A. Many depressed employees can function at work adequately, but if treated would likely experience an uptick in their social and occupational functioning. Some employees may suspect they have untreated depression, and some may not identify it at all because they have slowly adapted to its symptoms over an extended period. A crisis may bring these individuals into contact with outpatient mental health services, where the diagnosis is first identified. Depressed employees may appear slow to respond, lacking in energy, or resist engaging with others. Suggest self-referral to the EAP for obvious symptoms only (e.g., “you look really tired”). Or if work tasks cannot be accomplished satisfactorily, consider a formal EAP referral. Be careful not to adapt to the personality of a depressed worker by labeling them as lazy, quiet, unassuming, or “eccentric.” When this happens, others adapt, reduce confrontation, work around the employee, and allow the condition to linger, with unforeseeable consequences.
Is it Grief or Leave Abuse
Q. My employee has been absent for three weeks since the death of his mother. He phones to say he is dealing with estate issues. He has an attorney and family support. He is far past the five days of funeral leave we offer. I think a leave abuse issue exists, but should I refer him to the EAP?
A. If you have a bereavement leave policy, consult with your HR advisor regarding suspected abuse. Employees on funeral leave, responsible for managing the affairs of the deceased, may experience additional distress or suffer from grief that affects them later because they postponed self-care while attending to the needs of others. Suggesting the EAP is always a good idea for any problem. Dozens of things could explain the absence, but you can refer your employee to the EAP based on a finding of funeral leave abuse. EAPs have discovered that problems like this often are multifaceted. An employee may be grief-stricken, depressed, abusing leave, relapsing into an addiction problem, looking for another job, taking vacation, or all of these things at the same time! This is why EAPs exist—to help sort out the issues and help organizations retain valuable workers.
Employee Recovering From Meth Abuse is Drinking Alcohol
Q. One of my employees went away to a halfway house for meth abuse treatment. He self-referred and now looks great. I am nervous because he socializes with employees after hours, and he drinks alcohol with them. Can meth users drink alcohol safely?
A. Your employee may be abstinent from meth use, and his occupational and social functioning may be dramatically improved, but alcohol use following treatment for meth addiction would be contrary to the position of nearly all medical doctors who are experts on addiction and its treatment. According to the American Society of Addiction Medicine, addiction treatment requires “engagement in recovery activities.” Recovery means abstinence from psychoactive drug use, which includes alcohol, in order to avoid relapse to the drug of choice. Your job, of course, is monitoring performance and not focusing on the employee’s personal decisions outside work, no matter how ill-advised they may be. Relapse and its effect on performance may be evident in a week, a year, or more. If or when that time comes, engage the EAP.
How to Spot Exceptional Employees
Q. I would like to identify employees who appear to have the most creativity and drive. Is there a way to easily spot these employees in a work environment that does not allow for much of either?
A. Employees with creativity and drive tend to have skills often associated with entrepreneurial thinking. Meet with your employees regularly, and talk to them about what makes them excited and what makes them feel engaged. Keep the following in mind: Do you have employees who like dreaming up new ideas? Are any employees naturally prone to spotting new business opportunities? Do any employees consistently demonstrate their ability to spin positivity out of disappointment and see the silver lining of the cloud? Do you have employees who take initiative on the job to undertake something new without being asked? Evidence of these behaviors can often be spotted even in the most controlled, uninspiring, and limited work settings. Employees who are courageous and unafraid to think outside the box will find a way to get their needs met, even if it is not in your company, so working with your managers to create opportunities is one key strategy for retaining them and reaping the benefits of their talent.
Help, My Employee Seems to be Suffering With Schizophrenia
Q. My employee came to my office the other day to say he was being followed by agents of a foreign country and he hears them talking about him. He acts sincere, but I know this is mental illness—schizophrenia, right? How do I get the EAP involved?
A. Your employee’s behaviors could be explained by mental illness, such as a type of schizophrenia, but an evaluation would be needed to learn more. Those affected by schizophrenia (about 1 percent of the population) may have their first overt episode of the illness in young adulthood or later. It may therefore be witnessed on the job, and it can be alarming to unwitting coworkers when delusions or auditory hallucinations are shared. Effective medications exist for schizophrenia, and unlike decades ago, they allow employees to function quite adequately. The risk that an employee with mental illness will become violent is overblown, but a fitness-for-duty evaluation afforded by your personnel policies is appropriate if behavior interferes with or is disruptive to the work situation. You can start by suggesting the employee visit the EAP, or consult with the EAP about the steps to take.
We All Get Along; Why Do We Need Diversity Training?
Q. We have a diverse work group of about 50 employees, and it is obvious to me that everyone gets along well. I never get complaints, and I witness no inappropriate interactions. Is diversity awareness education or training still needed?
A. Diversity and inclusiveness awareness can be suitable for any workgroup, not necessarily because of existing problems but to reinforce and strengthen a positive work culture that already exists. Think “preventive maintenance.” Remember, if you have 50 employees, turnover is a natural part of the organizational process, and this alone could support a rationale for ongoing education. Many education programs enhance and reinforce existing strengths. A seminar on workplace communication is a good example. There is always more to know about it. Although you perceive a high-functioning and inclusive workgroup, you can never be sure that covert, unspoken, or unacknowledged biases exist and that they have been felt. Diversity awareness plays an intervening role in averting potential problems.
Supervisor is Fearful of Angry Employee
Q. We have an employee who gets very angry and exhibits rage. Thankfully, his performance is good, but I worry about having to fire him someday. What is the risk of violence if an employee like this is fired?
A. IAn examination of workplace violence incidents shows some common patterns. One is an employee’s violent response to unexpected termination where, as a result, the employee believed the company or supervisor “ruined” his life. This underscores the importance of working closely with employees in correcting performance, using the EAP, providing regular feedback, and having regular performance reviews. Use performance improvement plans and apply progressive disciplinary steps if ever needed, where each step is accompanied by an alternative to attend the EAP. This leveraging approach can prevent the dismissal of some of the most difficult employees. No one can predict an employee’s reaction to termination, but the less sudden and surprising it is to a potentially violent employee, in all probability, the lower the risk of a violent response.
Group Complaints About Supervisor
Q. Three employees went to the EAP in a group to complain about me. Will the EAP take what they say at face value or use whatever is said against me? The employees are all experiencing different performance issues. What do EAPs do in situations like this?
A. It is not unusual for small groups of employees to visit the EAP to complain about a supervisor. Typically, these cases center on complaints about communication, supervision practices, anger issues, and unfair distribution of work. EAPs view these cases as opportunities to help employees and reduce workplace conflicts that could grow more severe. After a group interview, individual employee interviews typically lead to greater insights about the problem, issues within the group itself, individual employee needs, and unique concerns about each employee’s relationship with the supervisor. Recommendations follow. The best outcome is reduced conflicts with the supervisor. For serious issues concerning management practices, the EAP would recommend employees to other internal organizational resources (e.g., human resources, procedures in the company handbook). Be assured that the EAP does not function as a human resources advisor, legal advocate, or business representative, or team up to lead a charge against the supervisor. To do so would damage the EAP’s perceived value to supervisors, reduce utilization, and increase risk to the organization.
Employees Do Not Want to Participate in Diversity Training
Q. Our work unit is participating in a three-part workshop on diversity awareness in a couple of weeks. A few employees are grumbling about being asked to participate, but isn’t this training an appropriate business activity?
A. Your workforce is your organization’s most valuable resource. Continuing education, awareness, and training all contribute to helping it maintain its value. Diversity fits this purpose, as would any other topic that could enhance its functioning. That’s the business rationale. The 21st-century workplace is increasingly diverse, and where organizations or employees fail to appreciate the business case for diversity, they risk lower profits, conflicts, higher turnover, loss of customer loyalty, and the domino effect from dysfunction that flows from employee biases becoming prejudices that damage morale. Diversity awareness gives organizations a fighting chance to improve the cooperation between employees and instill the mutual positive regard critical to workplace harmony. Diversity awareness is not about forcing employees to change their beliefs, which is what will make employees grumble. Instead, diversity awareness is about understanding the critical role of respect and how important it is to value every worker, even with their differences, so job satisfaction is more likely.
What Consultative Help are Available from EAP?
Q. I know the EAP is available to consult with me on troubled employees and how to effectively refer them to the EAP. What other types of consultative help are available to supervisors from the EAP?
A. Beyond consulting with the EAP about performance issues and referrals, consider the EAP as an expert source of help and guidance in five additional areas: 1) Improving relationships you have with your employees by examining your leadership strengths, communication style, and any opportunities for improving these skills; 2) Discovering ways to engage individual employees and motivate them, based on your observations of their work habits and personality styles and thereby maximizing their productivity and job satisfaction; 3) Assistance for yourself in understanding how to better manage stress; 4) Help for difficulties you face in communicating, engaging, and satisfying the needs of upper management; and 5) Guidance in managing team communication, team development, and resolving conflicts among employees, especially where personalities clash.
What Does it Mean to be a Proactive Supervisor?
Q. What does it mean to be a proactive supervisor?
A. A proactive supervisor is a manager engaged in the supervisory role, making decisions that support the essential functions of the position and the organization’s mission. Proactive supervisors are more successful at establishing the conditions that require their response, while supervisors who are not proactive must react more often to conditions that are thrust upon them. When supervisors are proactive in supervision, they think and act upstream to produce and create desired outcomes, rather than waiting and reacting to issues, concerns, problems, and crises that will appear later, often in more severe forms, and directly as a result of a failure to be proactive. Being proactive allows them to manage stress more effectively, and they go home at the end of the day less tired. Proactive supervisors are able to influence direction, control events, and feel more satisfaction in their positions. They put out fewer fires. Being proactive does not mean supervisors will not experience sudden problems or crises that require attention and an immediate response, but it does mean that they will naturally experience fewer of them.
Alcohol Abuse and Recovery
Q. We dismissed an alcoholic employee who relapsed after treatment, but now we hear he has been sober for over a year. It’s incredible because his case was a 25-year saga of problems and relapses. What explains this? He lost a six-figure salary.
A. It is impossible to know all the factors that contributed to this pattern when the employee was with your company and the surprising success at recovery after termination. However, some common observations about recovery are worth understanding. Chronic alcoholism is always accompanied by an unpredictable path of progression—including problems at work and home, incidents and physical illness, and enabling patterns within the family and in society, all of which direct the course of the illness and the timing for when (if ever) the addict will accept treatment. A 25-year history of issues at work suggests a long-term pattern of enabling and confusion within the organization that may have contributed to the alcoholic’s belief that one more day without entering treatment was possible and that after treatment, a relapse would be accommodated. Remember, alcoholism is a drug addiction accompanied by cognitive distortions in thinking, especially denial. Your employee’s fear of job loss may never have materialized until after it was experienced, wherein the need for treatment and recovery was accepted in order to financially survive. But this is only a guess.
Self-Referral vs. Formal Referral
Q. I was about to make a supervisor referral of my employee to the EAP, but before I could, he went to the program as a self-referral. This is great, but I don’t have a release signed, as I would if this was a formal referral. Should I ask him to sign one now?
A. Unless a serious work rule violation occurred, where a formal referral would be included, you can monitor your employee’s performance for now as you normally would. You should expect resolution of performance issues. You will feel in the dark about what the status of your employee’s participation in the EAP might be, but such is the case with any self-referral. That’s okay. If your employee continues to struggle, then initiate a formal EAP referral and request a release as usual. Note: If your employee was aware of a pending supervisor referral, and decided to self-refer to prevent your communication with the EAP, this will have no effect on your ability to monitor performance and act as needed. The key is to focus on performance.
Changing Your Own Perceptions
Q. I am growing tired of being a supervisor because I don’t like solving everyone else’s problems. This is how I’ve come to see my role. How can I see this job differently? I am about to quit.
A. The most common struggle supervisors face in understanding their role is learning to manage and lead. This includes establishing goals and objectives, and then helping employees get clear on the required outcomes. When employees have this clarity, then things settle down and your life gets easier. Employees then know what to do, and you become less of a micromanager. Delegation is an integral part of this process, of course. It entails assigning work, handing over authority, and holding accountable those whom work has been assigned. Grab a book on the topic of managing people at work (many such books exist), and see whether taking these steps might take the load off. Meeting with the EAP to process this journey to improvement will make it much more likely that you will be happier at work.
Sharing at the Workplace
Q. Is it okay for supervisors to talk about their personal problems and stress in front of employees, or are we supposed to never let them see us sweat?
A. Employees who perceive you as a “real person” are more likely to consider you approachable when the need arises for help or intervention with job problems they can’t handle alone. This does not mean that you must make an effort to share your personal problems. Instead, you should present yourself in a way that matches your personality style and facilitates a professional and constructive relationship with employees. It is a matter of choice regarding how much you personally share, unless your job setting dictates otherwise, such as in a military or similar context. There is no hard-and-fast rule about personal disclosures, but you should consider their impact regardless. Remember, your relationship is not just with your employees, but also with each individual employee. Some employees may need you to be direct and formal, while others may benefit from seeing your more vulnerable side. Both types of employees can be high producers.
How to Energize Employees
Q. How can I energize my employees and get them to feel excited about the work we are doing?
A. Energize employees by taking every opportunity to recognize their contributions while urging them to excel. Spend time periodically letting them feel your enthusiasm for the work, the goal, the vision, and the ultimate outcome because this positivity is contagious when it’s genuine. Be sure you find your own ways to stay excited and energized because if you can’t feel excitement yourself, it will not be possible to pass it along to them. Remind employees about their past achievements, and get them to understand the underlying reasons they succeeded and did so well. This will offer clues about what keeps them energized. Urge employees to top last year’s achievements. If they feel your energy and genuine concern for them, they will accept your recommendation to do so without rolling their eyes.